Wood Species

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Common Name(s): Canelão(Brazil), Palo san antonio; Canelon; Boisarrade; Badula; Canelón (Bolivia); Yuruma (Bolivia)

Scientific Name: Rapanea

Distribution: South America(Brazil e Bolivia)in subtropical rain forest; 

Tree Size: 54-65 ft (15-20 m) tall, 2-3 ft (0.6-0.9m) trunk diameter

Average Dried Weight: 35 lbs/ft3 (560 kg/m3)

Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): 0.61

Janka Hardness: 925.94 lbf (4,118 N)

Shrinkage: Radial: 3.7%, Tangential: 8.6%, Volumetric: 12.5%, T/R Ratio: 2.33

Color/Appearance: The sapwood and hardwood are not differentiated, the wood is whitish brown color, with dark pink streaks

Grain/Texture: The grain is typically straight. This species is usually reported to have a coarse texture.

Rot Resistance: This species is reported to have medium natural durability. It is highly permeable and it presents good absorption of preservatives.

Workability: Sawing of this species is reported to be rather easy. It is easy to machine. Planing is reported to be easy. Boring operations are rather easy. This species has a regular finishing because of its coarse grain.

Odor: There is no distinctive odor or taste.

Allergies/Toxicity: No information available.

Pricing/Availability: Primarily sold as rough sawn lumber. Prices are moderate to low for an imported tropical species.

Sustainability: This wood species is not listed in the CITES Appendices or on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 

Common Uses: Housing general, frames, shutter boards, Packing, moldings

Comments: 

Common Name(s): bruteiro, cachimbo-de-jabuti, cambará, cambará-rosa, cedrilho, jaboti, jaboti-da-terra-firme, quaruba-vermelha, quarubarana, quarubatinga, verga-de-jabuti

Scientific Name: Erisma uncinatum Warm, Vochysiaceae.

Distribution: South America; 

Tree Size: 100-130 ft (30-40 m) tall, 2-4 ft (.6-1.2 m) trunk diameter

Average Dried Weight: 37 lbs/ft3 (590 kg/m3)

Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): 0.46, 0.55

Janka Hardness: 864.16 lbf (3,844 N)

Modulus of Rupture: 11,632 lbf/in2 (80.2 MPa)

Elastic Modulus: 1,507,667 lbf/in2 (10,395 GPa)

Crushing Strength: 6,120 lbf/in2 (42.2MPa)

Shrinkage: Radial: 3.3%, Tangential: 7.5%, Volumetric: 12.5%, T/R Ratio: 2.33

Color/Appearance:The heartwood is pale pink brown to purplish brown or light reddish-brown. The sapwood is grayish white, and is distinct from the heartwood.

Grain/Texture: The grain is typically straight. Texture is typically medium to coarse.

Rot Resistance:The timber is reported to have good resistance to attack by decay-causing fungi and dry-wood insects. Its resistance to attack by termites is rated as poor. Resistance to Impregnation. Response to preservative treatment is reported to vary from moderate to poor.

Workability:Cutting Resistance
The timber is reported to be easy to saw. Internal growth stresses may be present.
The wood exerts slight blunting effect on cutters.The material is reported to be slightly abrasive, but it responds well to planing and other machining operations. Worked surfaces tend to be fuzzy.,Gluing properties are reported to be generally good. Nail holding characteristics are rated as good. Sanding properties are reported to be good.The wood is reported to take a good polish.

Odor: There is no distinctive odor or taste.

Allergies/Toxicity: No information available.

Pricing/Availability: Primarily sold as rough sawn lumber, siding, beans and boards S4S for furniture industry . Prices are moderate to low for an imported tropical species.

Sustainability: This wood species is not listed in the CITES Appendices or on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 

Common Uses: Bedroom suites, Boat building, Boxes and crates, Cabinetmaking, Chairs, Chests, Concrete formwork, Decorative plywood, Desks, Fine furniture, Furniture , Joinery, Living-room suites, Moldings, Office furniture, Packing cases, Plywood, Rustic furniture, Shipbuilding, Tables , Utility furniture, Wardrobes.

Comments: 

Common Name(s): cedrarana, cedro-branco, cedroarana, cedromara, cedrorama, taperibá-açu, tornillo 

Scientific Name: Cedrelinga catenaeformis

Distribution: Tropical South America

Tree Size: 65-115 ft (20-35 m) tall, 3-6 ft (1-1.9 m) trunk diameter

Average Dried Weight: 35 lbs/ft3 (555 kg/m3)

Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .47, .55

Janka Hardness: 950 lbf (4,230 N)

Modulus of Rupture: 9,870 lbf/in2 (68.1 MPa)

Elastic Modulus: 1,574,000 lbf/in2 (10.86 GPa)

Crushing Strength: 5,950 lbf/in2 (41.1 MPa)

Shrinkage: Radial: 3.8%, Tangential: 6.9%, Volumetric: 12.6%, T/R Ratio: 1.8


Color/Appearance: Heartwood is light to a golden brown. Very large, open pores also give a pronounced veined look to face grain surfaces. Sapwood isn’t often seen, and the paler color gradually transitions into the darker heartwood.

Grain/Texture: Grain is straight to slightly interlocked. Coarse, uniform texture with a moderate natural luster.

Endgrain: Diffuse-porous; solitary and radial multiples; very large pores in no specific arrangement, very few; reddish-brown mineral/gum deposits common; parenchyma vasicentric; narrow rays, spacing normal to fairly close.

Rot Resistance: Rated as moderately durable; poor insect resistance.

Workability: Easy to work with hand or machine tools, yet due to it’s low density and interlocked grain, fuzzy surfaces may result from some machining operations. Extra sanding or very sharp tools may be necessary to obtain a smooth finish. Turns, glues, and finishes well.

Odor: No characteristic odor (though green lumber can have an unpleasant scent).

Allergies/Toxicity: Besides the standard health risks associated with any type of wood dust, no further health reactions have been associated with Cedroarana.

Pricing/Availability: Despite the tree’s large size, Cedroarana is only occasionally available as lumber, and is more commonly seen as smaller craft or turning blanks. Prices are moderate for an imported hardwood.

Sustainability: This wood species is not listed in the CITES Appendices or on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

Common Uses: Furniture, turned objects, construction/utility wood, and paper (pulpwood).

Comments: Cedroarana has some of the largest pores of any commercial wood in the world. Anything above 200 micrometers is considered very large, yet Tornillo’s vessel diameters are routinely over 300 or 400 micrometers, upwards to approximately 500µm! These large pores give it a unique open texture, with the pores appearing as thin dark veins on all facegrain surfaces.


Scans/Pictures:

Tornillo (Cedrelinga catenaeformis)

Cedroarana(sanded)

Tornillo (sealed)

Cedroarana(sealed)

Tornillo (endgrain)

Cedroarana(endgrain)

Tornillo (endgrain 10x)

Cedroarana (endgrain 10x)

Common Name(s): Cumaru, Brazilian Teak

Scientific Name: Dipteryx odorata

Distribution: Northern South America

Tree Size: 130-160 ft (40-50 m) tall, 3-5 ft (1-1.5 m) trunk diameter

Average Dried Weight: 68 lbs/ft3 (1,085 kg/m3)

Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .86, 1.09

Janka Hardness: 3,330 lbf (14,800 N)

Modulus of Rupture: 25,390 lbf/in2 (175.1 MPa)

Elastic Modulus: 3,237,000 lbf/in2 (22.33 GPa)

Crushing Strength: 13,850 lbf/in2 (95.5 MPa)

Shrinkage: Radial: 5.3%, Tangential: 7.7%, Volumetric: 12.6%, T/R Ratio: 1.5

Color/Appearance: Heartwood tends to be a medium to dark brown, sometimes with a reddish or purplish hue; some pieces may have streaks of yellowish or greenish brown.

Grain/Texture: Grain is interlocked, with a medium texture and a waxy feel.

Endgrain: Diffuse-porous; solitary and radial multiples; large pores in no specific arrangement, few; heartwood mineral/gum deposits present; parenchyma lozenge, aliform, confluent, and sometimes marginal; narrow rays, spacing fairly close.

Rot Resistance: Cumaru has excellent durability and weathering properties. The wood is rated as very durable regarding decay resistance, with good resistance to termites and other dry-wood borers.

Workability: Tends to be difficult to work on account of its density and interlocked grain. If the grain is not too interlocked, Cumaru can be surface-planed to a smooth finish. However, the wood contains silica and will have a moderate blunting effect on tool cutters. Due to its high oil content and density, Cumaru can present difficulties in gluing, and pre-boring is necessary when screwing or nailing the wood.

Odor: Cumaru has a faint, vanilla or cinnamon-like odor when being worked.

Allergies/Toxicity: Besides the standard health risks associated with any type of wood dust, no further health reactions have been associated with Cumaru.

Pricing/Availability: Should be inexpensive for an import. Cumaru, much like Jatoba, represents a great value for those seeking a low-cost lumber that has excellent strength and hardness properties.

Sustainability: This wood species is not listed in the CITES Appendices or on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

Common Uses: Flooring, cabinetry, furniture, heavy construction, docks, railroad ties, bearings, handles, and other turned objects.

Comments: Wood of the species Dipteryx odorata is most commonly called Cumaru among most woodworkers, though it is sometimes referred to as Brazilian Teak as well: primarily when used as hardwood flooring. (Brazilian Teak is not related to the wood that is most commonly called Tectona grandis.)

Cumaru is also called by the name Tonka Bean, and the tree is commonly cultivated for its vanilla-cinnamon scented seed—the tonka bean—which contains a chemical compound called coumarin.

Cumaru lumber is extremely stiff, strong, and hard, lending itself well to a variety of applications. It is sometimes used in place of the much more scarce Lignum Vitae. The heartwood fluoresces under a backlight, wich can help distinguish it from Ipe.


 Scans/Pictures:

Cumaru (sanded)

Cumaru (sanded)

Cumaru (sealed)

Cumaru (sealed)

Cumaru (endgrain)

Cumaru (endgrain)

Cumaru (endgrain 10x)

Cumaru (endgrain 10x)

Source: The Wood Database

Common Name(s): Garapa

Scientific Name: Apuleia leiocarpa

Distribution: South America

Tree Size: 65-100 ft (20-30 m) tall, 3-5 ft (1-1.5 m) trunk diameter

Average Dried Weight: 51 lbs/ft3 (820 kg/m3)

Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .65, .82

Janka Hardness: 1,650 lbf (7,350 N)

Modulus of Rupture: 18,530 lbf/in2 (127.8 MPa)

Elastic Modulus: 2,257,000 lbf/in2 (15.57 GPa)

Crushing Strength: 9,030 lbf/in2 (62.3 MPa)

Shrinkage: Radial: 4.2%, Tangential: 7.5%, Volumetric: 11.4%, T/R Ratio: 1.8


Color/Appearance: Garapa has a golden to yellowish brown color, which darkens with age. The wood is fairly chatoyant, and appears to shift from dark to light coloring in different lighting angles. (This is evident in the scanned image of the sealed wood below, which only appears as patches of light/dark wood.)

Grain/Texture: Grain is usually straight, but can also be interlocked. Uniform medium texture with a moderate amount of natural luster.

Endgrain: Diffuse-porous; solitary and radial multiples; medium to large pores in no specific arrangement, moderately numerous; yellowish brown mineral deposits common; parenchyma lozenge, winged, and confluent; narrow rays, spacing normal.

Rot Resistance: Rated as durable, though vulnerable to termites and other insect attacks.

Workability: Garapa is fairly easy to work, despite its density. Glues and finishes well, and is about average for dimensional stability.

Odor: No characteristic odor.

Allergies/Toxicity: Although severe reactions are quite uncommon, Garapa has been reported to cause skin irritation.

Pricing/Availability: Garapa is not commonly available in lumber form, though it is sometimes used for flooring and decking. The price should be moderate for an imported hardwood.

Sustainability: This wood species is not listed in the CITES Appendices or on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

Common Uses: Flooring, decking, dock, and boatbuilding.

Comments: Garapa is occasionally exported from South America.


Scans/Pictures: 

Garapa (Apuleia leiocarpa)

Garapa (sanded)

Garapa (sealed)

Garapa (sealed)

Garapa (endgrain)

Garapa (endgrain)

Garapa (endgrain 10x)

Garapa (endgrain 10x)

Common Name(s): Ipe, Brazilian Walnut, Lapacho

Scientific Name: Handroanthus spp. (formerly placed in the Tabebuia genus)

Distribution: Tropical Americas (Central and South America); also farmed commercially

Tree Size: 100-130 ft (30-40 m) tall, 2-4 ft (.6-1.2 m) trunk diameter

Average Dried Weight: 69 lbs/ft3 (1,100 kg/m3)

Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .91, 1.10

Janka Hardness: 3,510 lbf (15,620 N)

Modulus of Rupture: 25,660 lbf/in2 (177.0 MPa)

Elastic Modulus: 3,200,000 lbf/in2 (22.07 GPa)

Crushing Strength: 13,600 lbf/in2 (93.8 MPa)

Shrinkage: Radial: 5.9%, Tangential: 7.2%, Volumetric: 12.4%, T/R Ratio: 1.2

Color/Appearance: Heartwood can vary in color from reddish brown, to a more yellowish olive brown or darker blackish brown; sometimes with contrasting darker brown/black stripes. In certain species, there are powdery yellow deposits within the wood. Ipe can be difficult to distinguish visually from Cumaru, another dense South American timber, though Ipe tends to be darker, and lacks the subtle yet characteristic vanilla/cinnamon scent while being worked.

Grain/Texture: Has a fine to medium texture, with the grain varying from straight to irregular or interlocked. Moderate natural luster.

Endgrain: Diffuse-porous; solitary and radial multiples; medium to large pores in no specific arrangement, moderately numerous to numerous; tyloses and mineral/gum deposits occasionally present; parenchyma unilateral, winged, and marginal; narrow rays, spacing normal; ripple marks present.

Rot Resistance: Rated as very durable; excellent insect resistance, though some species are susceptible to marine borers. Superb weathering characteristics. (Ipe was used for the boardwalk along the beach of New York City’s Coney Island, and was said to have lasted 25 years before it needed to be replaced: an amazing lifespan given the amount of traffic and environmental stresses put upon the wood.)

Workability: Overall, Ipe is a difficult wood to work, being extremely hard and dense, with high cutting resistance during sawing. Ipe also has a pronounced blunting effect on cutting edges. The wood generally planes smoothly, but the grain can tearout on interlocked areas. Also, Ipe can be difficult to glue properly, and surface preparation prior to gluing is recommended. Straight-grained wood turns well, though the natural powdery yellow deposits can sometimes interfere with polishing or finishing the wood.

Odor: Ipe has a mild scent while being worked.

Allergies/Toxicity: Although severe reactions are quite uncommon, Ipe has been reported to cause skin, eye, and respiratory irritation, as well as other effects such as headaches, asthma-like symptoms, and/or disturbance of vision. See the articles Wood Allergies and Toxicity and Wood Dust Safety for more information.

Pricing/Availability: Primarily sold as decking or flooring, boards for furniture or general use are sometimes available as well. Prices are moderate for an imported tropical species.

Sustainability: This wood species is not listed in the CITES Appendices or on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. However, Ipe species grow in very low densities, with mature trees only occurring once per 300,000 to 1,000,000 square feet (3 to 10 hectares) of forest area. This necessitates the clearing of large sections of rainforest trees (most of which are of little commercial value). Though uncommon, certified sources of Ipe are available.

Common Uses: Flooring, decking, exterior lumber, veneer, tool handles, and other turned objects.

Comments: Ipe is a wood of extremes: extremely dense and durable, as well as extremely difficult to work. Its incredible hardness and strength make it well suited for flooring applications, though it is referred to as “Brazilian Walnut” among flooring dealers—though it is not related to true Walnut in the Juglans genus.

Formerly placed in the Tabebuia genus, species of Ipe (H. guayacan, H. impetiginosus, H. serratifolius) were moved to the Handroanthus genus in 2007 based on genetic studies


Ipe (sanded)

Ipe (sanded)

Ipe (sealed)

Ipe (sealed)

Ipe (endgrain)

Ipe (endgrain)

Ipe (endgrain 10x)

Ipe (endgrain 10x)

Source: The Wood Database

Common Name(s): Tanibouca, Mirindiba, Tanimbuca, Periquiteira

Scientific Name: Buchenavia ssp

Distribution: South America, Northern Brazil

Tree Size: 100-130 ft (30-40 m) tall, 2-4 ft (.6-1.2 m) trunk diameter

Average Dried Weight:62 lbs/ft3 (940 kg/m3)

Specific Gravity (Basic, 14% MC): .78 

Janka Hardness: 2,815 lbf (12,521N)

Shrinkage: Radial:3.5%, Tangential: 8.3%, Volumetric: 12.1%, T/R Ratio: 1.4


Color/Appearance: Heartwood brown, light brown or yellowish brown, slightly distinct from pale yellow sapwood. 

Grain/Texture: Distinct and irregular growth rings, grain stright or interlocked, texture fine to medium and luster moderate. 

Endgrain: 

Rot Resistance: Jatoba is rated as being very durable in regards to rot resistance, and is also resistant to termites and most other insects. (Though it has been reported to be susceptible to attack from marine borers.

Workability: Difficult to saw and plane . Finishing is regular in planing and excellent in sanding, turning and boring.

Odor: Agreeable odor when green, which disappears after drying

Allergies/Toxicity: Although severe reactions are quite uncommon, Mirindiba has been reported to cause skin irritation.

Pricing/Availability: Available in satisfactory sizes and widths as lumber. It’s inexpensive for an imported timber.

Sustainability: This wood species is not listed in the CITES Appendices, and is reported by the IUCN as being a species of least concern.

Common Uses: Paling, Fence pickets, Stakesposts, Crossarms, Crossties,  Beams, Joists, Boards, Flooring, Steps, Paneling, Common furniture,  Decorative veneer, Common Veneer ,  Knife handles, Lasts, Tool handles, Agricultural tools, Heavy packing, Cooperage, Chemstorage, Truck bodies, Truck flooring.

Comments: